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PARTIAL KNEE REPLACEMENT AND TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT
When you have a total knee replacement, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from the surface of your knee joint and replaces them with a man-made surface of metal and plastic. If a person has arthritis and pain that doesn’t go away when they take medicine, and they can’t function, that’s the time to consider a surgery fix. The surgery that is most reliable is the total knee replacement.
In a partial knee replacement, the surgeon only replaces one part of your knee joint. This type of surgery can cause scarring, blood clots and, rarely, infections. Whereas, in Total Knee Replacement, the whole joint is replaced. What has made partial knee replacements easier for surgeons to perform is the advanced guided imaging technology that enables them to visualize knee surgery on a computer screen as they are performing it.
Both the knees can also be replaced simultaneously, the process thus known as Bilateral Knee Replacement.
TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT
A total hip replacement is a surgical procedure where the diseased cartilage and bone of the hip joint is replaced with artificial materials, surgically. The normal hip joint is a ball and socket joint where the socket is a "cup shaped" component of the pelvis termed as, acetabulum , and the ball is the head of the thighbone (femur). Total hip joint replacement involves surgical removal of the diseased ball and socket by further replacing them with a metal (or ceramic) ball and stem that is inserted into the femur bone and an artificial plastic (or ceramic) cup socket. The metallic artificial ball and stem are referred to as the "femoral prosthesis" and the plastic cup socket is the "acetabular prosthesis". Upon inserting the prosthesis into the central core of the femur, it is fixed with a bony cement called methyl methacrylate. Alternatively, a "cement less" prosthesis is used that has microscopic pores which allows the bony ingrowth from the normal femur into the prosthesis stem. This "cement less" hip is known to have a longer duration and is considered mainly for younger patients.
THE HIP RESURFACING
In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is not removed, but is instead trimmed and capped with a smooth metal covering. The damaged bone and cartilage within the socket is removed and replaced with a metal shell, just as in a traditional total hip replacement -Spinal Disc Replacement. Hip resurfacing has been developed as a surgical alternative to the total hip replacement (THR). Its procedure consists of placing a cobalt chrome metal cap (which is hollow and shaped like a mushroom) over the head of the femur, while a matching metal cup (similar to what is used with a THR) is placed in the acetabulum (pelvis socket), replacing the articulating surfaces of the patients hip joint and removing very little bone as compared to a THR. When the patient moves the hip, the movement of the joint induces synovial fluid to flow between the hard metal bearing surfaces, thereby lubricating them when the components are placed in the accurate position. The surgeons level of experience with hip resurfacing is most important. Therefore, the selection of the right surgeon is crucial for a successful outcome for this surgery.
SPINAL DISC REPLACEMENT
The use of an artificial disc to replace a damaged spinal disc that is generating chronic back pain is basically a spinal disc replacement. There is a wide range of new products, procedures and techniques currently in development to enhance spine surgery, and many spine surgeons believe that artificial disc technology holds real promise for significantly improving the standard of care for many patients. To determine the candidate for disk replacement, the surgeon may require a few tests like: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), discography, computed tomography (CT or CAT scan), and x-rays. These tests will also help the surgeon determine the source of the pain.
Candidates for disk replacement have the following issues:
• Back pain assumed to be caused mostly from one or two intervertebral disks in the lumbar spine
• No significant facet joint disease or bony compression on nerves
• Not excessively overweight
• No prior major surgery in the lumbar spine
• No deformity (scoliosis)
SPINAL FUSION
Spinal fusion is a surgery to join together two bones (vertebrae) in the spine. Fusion permanently joins two bones together so there is no longer movement between them. Spinal fusion is usually done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. The doctor will make a surgical cut (incision) to view the spine. Other surgeries like discectomy, laminectomy, or a foraminotomy, is almost always done first. Spinal fusion may be done:
On your back or neck over the spine. You will be lying face down. Muscles and tissue will be separated to expose the spine.
On your side, if you are having surgery on your lower back. The surgeon will use tools called retractors to gently separate, hold the soft tissues and blood vessels apart, and have room to work.
With a cut on the front of the neck, towards the side.
SLIPPED DISC
The spinal column is composed of 26 bones (vertebrae) that are cushioned by disks. These disks protect the bones by absorbing the shocks from daily activities like walking, lifting, and twisting. Each of these disks have two parts—a soft, gelatinous inner portion and a tough outer ring. Injury or weakness can cause the inner portion of the disk to protrude through the outer ring. This is termed as a slipped or herniated disk. It causes pain and discomfort. If, the slipped disk compresses one of your spinal nerves, one might also experience numbness and pain along the affected nerve. In severe instances, one might require surgery to either remove or repair the slipped disk.
Symptoms of a slipped disk include:
• Pain that extends to your arms and/or legs.
• Pain that worsens mainly during the night.
• Pain and numbness, most commonly at one side of the body.
• Pain that worsens after standing or sitting.
• Pain while walking short distances.
• Unexplained muscle weakness.
• Tingling, aching, or burning sensations in the affected area.
OTHER ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENTS
Abnormal curvature of the spine (Scoliosis)
Injury to spinal vertebrae
Slipped disc
Weak or unstable spine caused by Infections or tumors
Spinal stenosis
Spinal Tumors
Herniated Disc