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Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area. Although primarily associated with teeth among the general public, the field of dentistry or dental medicine is thus not limited to odontology the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth. Because of their substantial overlap in concept, dentistry is often also understood to subsume the now largely defunct medical specialty of stomatology (the study of the mouth and its disorders and diseases) for which reason the two terms are used interchangeably in certain regions.

1.Preventative Dentistry
Preventive dentistry is the practice of caring for ones teeth to keep them healthy. This helps to avoid cavities, gum disease, enamel wear, and more. There are various forms of preventive dentistry such as, daily brushing and annual dental cleanings. These practices are designed to ensure that teeth are clean, strong, and white. Children should be taught proper oral hygiene at an early age.

The most important part of preventive dentistry is to brush teeth daily. Most people should replace their toothbrushes three to four times a year or as the bristles start to fray. 

Daily flossing is also recommended. Flossing helps to clean out the tight spaces between the teeth. People with braces may need to use floss threads to get between the metal brackets. 

Annual dental cleanings and exams allow dentists to identify problems and take care of them right away. Eating a balanced diet also helps to protect the teeth by providing them with the nutrients they need.
2. Restorative Dentistry:
Restorative dentistry is the diagnosis, study and integrated management of diseases of the teeth, their supporting structures, and the rehabilitation of the dentition to functional and aesthetic requirements of the individual. Restorative dentistry encompasses the dental specialties of endodontics, periodontics and prosthodontics and its foundation is based upon how these interact in cases requiring multifaceted care.
3. Cosmetic Dentistry:
For stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include:
Bleaching- to make teeth whiter
Repairing chips or rough spots with fillings that match your teeth
Filling cavities with tooth-colored materials
Reshaping those teeth that do not match with the others
Closing gaps between the teeth
Covering broken teeth with porcelain crowns
4. Sedation:
Sedation dentistry uses medication to help patients relax during dental procedures. Its sometimes referred to as "sleep dentistry," which is not entirely accurate because the patients are usually awake with the exception of those who are under general anesthesia.
Minimal sedation -- you are awake but relaxed.
Moderate sedation -- you may slur your words when speaking and not remember much of the procedure.
Deep sedation -- you are on the edge of consciousness but can still be awakened.
General anesthesia -- you are completely unconscious.
5. Oral Surgery:
Oral surgery is a specialty that deals with the treatment and ongoing management of irregularities and pathology of the jaw and mouth that require surgical intervention.
Although the surgical removal of teeth is the most common procedure performed by oral surgeons, there is a broad scope to the specialty. This includes the management of hard and soft tissue pathology, oral infections, dent alveolar trauma and oro-facial pain along with provision of surgery to support orthodontics and insertion of Osseo integrated implants.
6. Endodontics:
Endodontic surgery can be used to locate small fractures or hidden canals that werent detected on X-rays or during previous treatment. Surgery may also be needed to remove calcium deposits in root canals, or to treat damaged root surfaces or the surrounding bone of the tooth.
There are many surgical procedures that can be performed to save a tooth. The most common is called an apicoectomy, or root-end resection, which is occasionally needed when inflammation or infection persists in the bony area around the end of your tooth after a root canal procedure. In this microsurgical procedure, the endodontist opens the gum tissue near the tooth to see the underlying bone and to remove any inflamed or infected tissue. The very end of the root is also removed. A small filling may be placed to seal the end of the root canal and few stitches or sutures are placed to help the tissue heal. Over a period of months, the bone heals around the end of the root. Usage of local anesthetics makes the procedure comfortable and most patients return to their normal activities the next day. Postsurgical discomfort is generally mild.